Depression is a serious mental illness in which feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest, anger, frustration, or other negative emotions like irritability (especially in adolescents) last for weeks or years and interfere with daily life. All people experience moments when they feel sad or blue, but these feelings usually pass within a couple of days and are not indicative of depression.
Symptoms of Depression
- Sadness, anxious or ’empty’ mood
- Feelings of hopelessness
- Feelings of wordlessness
- Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies or activities that were once enjoyed including sex
- Decreased Energy
- Difficulty concentrating
- Changes in sleep pattern
- Appetite and weight changes
- Thoughts of death, suicide/suicidal attempts
- Physical problems like headache, digestion problems not satisfactorily relieved with just physical treatment
Depression & Physical Problems
Depression is a co-existing problem with many medical problems and unless depression is treated the medical problems continue to get complicated.
- Diabetic mellitus-Depression can lead to diabetes and diabetes can lead to depression
- Depression can lead to heart diseases
- HIV/AIDS-1 in 3 people with HIV/AIDS suffer from depression
- Suicide-90% people committing suicide have depression
- Osteoporosis- Depression reduces bone formation
- Major Depression : You may hear your doctor call this "major depressive disorder." You might have this type if you feel depressed most of the time for most days of the week.
- Persistent Depressive Disorder: If you have depression that lasts for 2 years or longer, it's called persistent depressive disorder. This term is used to describe two conditions previously known as dysthymia (low-grade persistent depression) and chronic major depression.
- Manic Depression (Bipolar Disorder ): Someone with bipolar disorder, which is also sometimes called "manic depression," has mood episodes that range from extremes of high energy with an "up" mood to low "depressive" periods.
- Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD):Seasonal affective disorder is a period of major depression that most often happens during the winter months, when the days grow short and you get less and less sunlight. It typically goes away in the spring and summer.
- Psychotic Depression:People with psychotic depression have the symptoms of major depression along with "psychotic" symptoms, such as: Hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren't there), Delusions (false beliefs),Paranoia (wrongly believing that others are trying to harm you)
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD):Women with PMDD have depression and other symptoms at the start of their period. Besides feeling depressed, you may also have: Mood swings, Irritability, Anxiety, Trouble concentrating, Fatigue, Change in appetite or sleep habits, Feelings of being overwhelmed.
- Atypical Depression:This type is different than the persistent sadness of typical depression. It is considered to be a "specifier" that describes a pattern of depressive symptoms. If you have atypical depression, a positive event can temporarily improve your mood.
Brain stimulation Therapies
- ECT(Electro Convulsive Therapy)
- RTMS (repetitive Tran cranial/Magnetic stimulation)
- Deep Brain Stimulation
- Depression is 2 to 3 times more common in women
- Long standing physical problem can also lead to Depression
- Depression affects people of all ages, races & incomes worldwide
- Medication with structured talk therapy is effective
MEDICATION: There are various kinds of medicines available to treat depression & they are called ANTIDEPRESSANTS.
Cognitive behaviour therapy